By: Ali Pashaei, Mehdi Ghatee & Hedieh Sajedi
Published: Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, 17(4), 1051-1066 – February 2019 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11554-019-00852-3
This paper considers the accident images and develops a deep learning method for feature extraction together with a mixture of experts for classification. For the first task, the outputs of the last max-pooling layer of a Convolution Neural Network (CNN) are used to extract the hidden features automatically. For the second task, a mixture of advanced variations of Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) including basic ELM, constraint ELM (CELM), On-Line Sequential ELM (OSELM) and Kernel ELM (KELM), is developed. This ensemble classifier combines the advantages of different ELMs using a gating network and its accuracy is very high while the processing time is close to real-time. To show the efficiency, the different combinations of the traditional feature extraction and feature selection methods and the various classifiers are examined on two kinds of benchmarks including accident images’ data set and some general data sets. It is shown that the proposed system detects the accidents with 99.31% precision, recall and F-measure. Besides, the precisions of accident-severity classification and involved-vehicle classification are 90.27% and 92.73%, respectively. This system is suitable for on-line processing on the accident images that will be captured by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or other surveillance systems.
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